a staple food in many developing countries. Also called peanuts,
groundnuts are a protein rich tuber that grows well in semi-arid
regions. There are two main types of groundnuts: the
American groundnut (Arachis
hypogaea), and the African groundnut, the Bambara nut (Voandzeia
subterranea). Both are grown
in Western Africa as a protein source. Groundnuts also contain
sufficient quantities of carbohydrates and fats. After drying
and roasting the groundnut it can be used to make flour, soup,
porridge, and milk. Groundnuts are often grown by small farm holders
and is considered a woman's crop in Western Africa.
This web page provides information on groundnut production programs in Africa. It focuses on how to mobilize women agricultural groups and can be used as an intial resource on groundnuts. This page does not provide a how-to guide on groundnut production. However, it does provide basic information and links on the impact groundnut production has on women, their children, and their income.
For information on groundnut (peanut) production, please visit the following sites:
Describes the growth habits and environmental requirements of the peanut. Also details the fertility and lime requirements needed for successful production.
Provides description how ICRISAT created high-yield, long-duration groundnut varieties to resist the groundnut rosette The rosette is the most damaging disease of the groundnut in Africa
Peanut production methods and some diseases affecting the production in Northern Ghana are outlined in this journal article. Depicts crops cultivated on different types of land and its implication for peanut production.
yields in Africa are traditionally low, due to a combination of:
unreliable rains, little technology available to small scale farmers,
pest and disease occurrence, poor seed variety, and increased
cultivation on marginal land. Political instability and non supportive
small farm policies have also negatively impacted ground nut production
in Western Africa. Because of these reasons, there has been an
increased demand for women support groups for home gardening and
history of the Bambara groundnut originated in West Africa, is
an extremely adaptable plant suited for hot, dry soils, and has
been known to resist pests & disease. Harvesting is similar
to the peanut.
Groundnuts provide a vital source of cash income and nutritious, high protein food which could prevent child malnutrition.
Groundnut has many important nutrients and useful in the treatment of hemophilia. Also, groundnuts can cure stomatitis, prevent diarrhea, and beneficial for growing children, pregnant mothers & nursing mothers.
The groundnut is considered a women's crop in Africa. It was
originally grown by women to supplement their families diet with
protein. However, groundnut production can also be a way for women
to earn a cash income and participate in the economy. Consequently,
increasing women's agency, and empowerment. Women
value groundnut harvests for many reasons, including: harvest
profits can send children to school, provides a high energy
and protein food source for their children, oil for cooking, and
high quality feed for cattle.
Study on home gardening projects in Senegal Africa. Found that women were the more successful home gardeners than men. Income recieved from garden harvests allowed women to spend more and allowed them to better provide for their family's needs.
adoption increased the workload of women farmers and expanded
the employment prospects of female laborers in developing countries.
Production technologies for groundnut farming created a positive
impact on yields and income and helped create an informal farmer-to-farmer
Groundnuts provide a vital source of
cash income and nutritious, high protein food which could prevent
Groundnuts require a light sandy loam soil, and semi-arid conditions.
Optimal growing time is five months of warm weather, with an annual
rainfall of 20 to 40 inches or the equivalent in irrigation water.
Groundnut production is dependent on land preparation, seed extraction,
seeding, cultivation, harvesting, stripping and sun-drying. This
process is labor intensive which can affect the productivity and
quality of nuts produced. However, with the introduction of groundnut
projects and simple technologies production yields can be increased.
There are several start-up small scale groundnut programs available on the web. Many of these programs include area-specific guidelines of appropriate groundnut production techniques. Significantly, the greater the support and participation of women in a community project, the more successful a program will be. The following links provide information on involving women in groundnut production projects.
Groundnut Improvement Program for West and Central Africa: The groundnut improvement program in West and Central Africa (WCA) was established in September 1986 at the ICRISAT Sahelian Center (ISC) to develop groundnut varieties suitable for various production systems in close collaboration with National Agricultural Research and Extension Systems (NARES). The program focused on alleviating the main production constraints identified as drought and heat, foliar diseases (early and late leaf spots and rust), groundnut rosette, Aflatoxin contamination and soil pests.
Advises using a more selective seed
to prevent further spread of the peanut clump virus which is known
to cause losses exceeding $40 million on a global scale. Cropping
systems that avoid cereals before growing the groundnut can be
beneficial to reduce disease incidence.
of some women's groups in Ghana are listed to help progress the
of groundnuts for women farmers.
Within 5 years many new groundnut varieties will be introduced leading to a significant increase in world-wide production. New varieties are disease resistant and produce 50% more than traditional groundnuts in Mali. The International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) helps increase crop productivity and food security, reduce poverty, and protect the environment in developing countries. Special emphasis is placed on groundnut since it is particularly important in the diet of the poor.
The Common Fund for Commodities with ICRISAT studied the germplasm of the groundnut of Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso and Mali. Since groundnut production is limited by diseases, viruses, and drought the germplasm was screened for sources of resistance to these constraints.
groundnut market can be increased through export. Exporters of
groundnuts must ensure food safety by preventing contamination
of products and adapting groundnut supplies for various specific
end-uses. Groundnut farmers need to grow varieties for specific
Describes a process-oriented model developed at the University of Nottingham as a tool to simulate crop growth and yield in bambara groundnut.
The objective of this
study was to assess the potential productivity of bambara groundnut
(Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) - an under utilized African
legume - across the world.
groundnut stew similar to the Western African version.
yummy groundnut cookies
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Page Created: April 6th, 2004